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News Archives for October 2011

Man Throws 4,800 Bottled Messages into the Sea, Gets 3,100 Replies

Posted: October 1, 2011 @ time: 06:48AM
Author: edwardquilo

Credit this determined Canadian for steadfastly using what could be the world's slowest form of social networking: a message in a bottle. For the past 15 years Harold Hackett has been communicating with people from all over the world, not by phone or the Internet, but simply through a floating time capsule delivered by ocean waves. Starting his unusual hobby back in 1996, Hackett has since sent over 4,800 Ocean Spray juice bottles from a beach in Prince Edward Island into the Atlantic coast, and patiently waits for someone from another far-flung region to discover the enclosed message within the bottle. 

So far, he's received more than 3,000 replies globally: some from the shores of the United States and others from as far away as Ireland, South America, and Africa. A few of these bottled messages take as much as 10 years before Hackett receives any correspondence, but he doesn't seem to mind the waiting. But why does he use such an archaic form of reaching out to others? Hackett explains that he'd much rather hear from people the old fashioned way. He also stresses that he has never included his phone number on his bottled notes, only his postal address, so that people would be compelled to write him a letter instead. Hackett plans on continuing this 15-year tradition, and in the process will likely encourage more people to use a more primitive mode of social networking, without the help of modern technology.


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Hardware Roundup: Monday Edition

Posted: October 3, 2011 @ time: 05:06AM
Author: Nemo

Computer Ed continues its Summer of Cases series with a review of the Thermaltake Level 10 GT Snow Edition. There is also a review on the Sentey Optimus GS-6000 mid-tower chassis in our roundup. In the gaming arena we have a couple of articles looking at the beta version of Battlefield 3. There are, of course, more reviews covering a power supply from Kingwin, another solid state drive from Corsair and more.

Cases
Sentey Optimus GS-6000 Mid-Tower ATX Computer Case @ Tweaknews
Summer of Cases: Thermaltake Level 10 GT Snow Edition @ Computer Ed

CPUs
AMD's A8-3800 Fusion APU @ Tech Report

Gaming
Four hours with the Battlefield 3 beta @ Tech Report
Battlefield 3 BETA PC Preview @ TweakTown

Motherboards
Sapphire Pure Platinum A75 (PT-A8A75) @ Bjorn3D

Notebooks
MSI X370 Notebook Review: Fusion Hardware, Ultraportable Chassis @ PC Perspective

Power Supplies
Kingwin Stryker 500W Fanless Power Supply @ ThinkComputers

Storage/Hard Drives
Corsair Force GT 240GB Solid State Drive @ TweakTown

Miscellany
Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones (2002) Blu-ray Movie @ TweakTown


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PSN Pass Confirmed for Uncharted 3

Posted: October 3, 2011 @ time: 07:52AM
Author: bp9801

I know many PlayStation 3 gamers are looking forward to Uncharted 3: Drake's Deception, the third game in the popular Uncharted series. I'm sure some of you got a taste of the game earlier this summer with the multiplayer beta, and the full game has just about a month to go before it launches. However, a slight hesitation may occur for some of you as Sony has announced that Uncharted 3 will make use of the PSN Pass. The PSN Pass is a code that you get in a new game and enter on the PS3 to access the game's online component. The feature was announced earlier this year and first implemented in Resistance 3, so now this is the second big-name game from Sony to make use of it. If you happen to purchase the game used, you will be required to purchase the PSN Pass for $10. This is one way to deter people from buying games used, but it doesn't mean we have to agree with it.

Uncharted 3: Drake's Deception releases on November 1st for the PS3.


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Metal Gear Solid HD Collection Getting a Limited Edition

Posted: October 3, 2011 @ time: 07:52AM
Author: bp9801

Fans of the Metal Gear Solid franchise should be pretty enthused that some of the past games in the series are getting the high-definition treatment. The Metal Gear Solid HD Collection includes Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty, Metal Gear Solid 3: Snake Eater, and Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker, so you will be getting two PS2 games and one PSP game displayed in HD. The collection will hit on November 8th for the PS3 and 360, probably one reason the first Metal Gear Solid is not being included, but it seems Konami has a little something extra in store. The Metal Gear Solid HD Collection Limited Edition will also launch on November 8th, and inside it you will find a 248 page art book and special packaging illustrated by the series' lead artist Yoji Shinkawa. The Limited Edition has had an $80 price revealed, which seems to be the typical premium associated with a special edition. What's more, is that the HD Collection version of Peace Walker implements a new technology that lets you transfer saves between the PSP and PS3 versions of this game. MGS creator Hideo Kojima hopes to expand that ability, dubbed transfarring, to the rest of the HD Collection and to create future games on the PS Vita and PS3 using it.


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New PlayStation Network Program Brings PS2 Classics to the Store

Posted: October 3, 2011 @ time: 07:52AM
Author: bp9801

For those who own a PlayStation 3, sometimes you just want to relive some of the classic PlayStation 2 games. If you missed out on getting a backwards compatible PS3, your best bet is to hope for an HD remake of some PS2 games. There have been several released over the last couple of years and some more on the horizon, but those don't cover a ton of PS2 games so far. Aside from hooking up your old PS2 or finding one at a store, you do not have much of an option to play the old PS2 games. However, all of that will change later this month as the PlayStation Network will offer some classic PS2 games for sale on the PS Store. These games are not remastered and lack trophies, so these appear exactly how they did on the PS2. These games are part of the "Only on PlayStation Network" campaign, and include new games and DLC for the PS3, as well as some classic PS2 games. The games available this month will be: God Hand, GrimGrimoire, Maximo: Ghosts to Glory, Odin Sphere, and Ring of Red. The games will start to roll out tomorrow, October 4th, and should carry on through the rest of the month. Hopefully, Sony continues releasing classic PS2 games after October ends, giving us gamers more of a chance to expand our games collection.


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Mass Effect 3 to Include Multiplayer?

Posted: October 3, 2011 @ time: 09:09AM
Author: bp9801

This news is just rumor for now, so take from it what you will. In an advertisement for the Mass Effect 3 N7 Collector's Edition, Eurogamer spotted mention of an "online multiplayer pass." This could mean that Mass Effect 3 will receive a standalone mulitplayer component, perhaps the previously rumored four player co-op mode. That co-op mode is said to feature "competitive elements," which will include some original missions designed just for the online play. BioWare co-founder Dr. Ray Muzyka told EuroGamer that multiplayer is something being explored in all of his company's games, so it does not seem like too much of a stretch to see an online co-op mode appear in Mass Effect 3. This is all just rumor for now, so until something gets confirmed closer to ME3's launch date, take the information with a grain of salt. There is supposed to be a Mass Effect announcement later this month, so maybe this rumor of a multiplayer component will be confirmed.

Mass Effect 3 launches on March 6th, 2012, for the PC, PS3, and 360.


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Twitter Used to Study Biological Clock

Posted: October 3, 2011 @ time: 10:45AM
Author: Guest_Jim_*

Researchers have been trying to study the biological rhythms of the human body for a long time, but have often been plagued with small, homogeneous samples. Researchers at Cornell University decided to use Twitter as a means to create a very large data sample; over 509 million messages. A key characteristic of this data is it comes from across the globe and not a single culture. What they found was not exactly what everyone expected. Using a lexicon to analyze the text for mood, the findings showed how time of day, work, sleep, and amount of daylight all impacted ones mood. The midday-down though, believed to be caused by exhaustion at work while still having hours to go, while found across the world, does not appear to be associated with work. While work can intensify the experience, it occurs on non-work days. Non-work days did show a higher average positive attitude.


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Making Graphene an Insulator?

Posted: October 3, 2011 @ time: 11:10AM
Author: Guest_Jim_*

Graphene is a single-atom thick plane of carbon atoms, arranged in a hexagonal pattern, and has some extraordinary properties, including very high electrical conductivity. Researchers at the University of California, Riverside, have accidently discovered an unpredicted property of stacked sheets of graphene. When stacking three layers on top of each, so the top and bottom layer line up, the material is a conductor, as expected, but if the top layer is shifted by one atomic width, the material becomes an insulator. This is an example of experiment getting ahead of theory as the researchers do not know what electronic interaction may be going on to cause this effect. Once it is better understood, the insulating form of graphene may be useful in future electronics, as single-layer graphene does not have a band gap, a property central to transistors.


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Carbon Composites Entering Cars

Posted: October 3, 2011 @ time: 12:03PM
Author: Guest_Jim_*

Carbon composites are plastics with carbon fibers mixed in, for reinforcement. The resulting material is quite strong while being 50% lighter than steel and 30% lighter than aluminum, which is why planes, such as the Boeing 787 Dreamliner and Airbus A350, use it. Now the composites may be coming down to our cars. The reduction in weight should drive the composite vehicles to new efficiencies, but there is a catch, of course. Carbon composites are not cheap and may add $5,000, or more, to the cost of the vehicle.


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Redefining the Ampere Thanks To Graphene

Posted: October 3, 2011 @ time: 12:25PM
Author: Guest_Jim_*

Measure twice, cut once is how the saying goes, and is a good one to use when making or modifying anything. For example, researchers at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL), outside of London, used it for an experiment that may lead to redefining the ampere, and even the kilogram. Many of the metric units humanity uses have been linked to physical constants or observations. The meter is defined by the speed of light and the second is tied to electron states within a ground-state cesium 133 atom. (Fun fact: when a more accurate measure of the speed of light is made, the length of the meter changes.) The kilogram and amp are two units which have not yet been tied to any fundamental constant, but the hope is to connect to them to the Planck constant and the charge of an electron, respectively. A key to doing this is to show the quantum Hall effect will universally link these two constants. The effect had only been observed in semiconductors before, but thanks to the thinness of graphene, the researchers at NPL were able to observe it elsewhere. Their results confirm the quantum Hall effect as being universal and may lead to definite values to the kilogram and ampere in the future.


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NVIDIA Releases Battlefield 3 Beta Performance Guide

Posted: October 3, 2011 @ time: 05:46PM
Author: CheeseMan42

With the recent release of the Battlefield 3 Beta, most gamers want to know if their systems can handle the new Frostbite 2 graphics engine. DICE hoped to combine the best parts of the two engines it had previously used, Frostbite 1 and the Unreal Engine 3, into one with Frostbite 2. If you have seen any photos from the game, then you know the game already looks amazing. NVIDIA decided to do some tests to see how its video cards stacked up against the game, summarizing its results in a guide. A total of eleven graphic settings can be adjusted, with four presets included, Low, Medium, High, and Ultra. The game looks pretty good at lower qualities for those gamers that don't have the best systems, but it really looks amazing at High and Ultra settings. In some testing performed by NVIDIA, setups with at least one GTX 590 performed best, with results from using two of those cards in SLI producing even higher frame rates. Follow the link to see the full results of the testing, and see where your card falls in the performance rankings.


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Payday: The Heist Delayed to Later this Month

Posted: October 3, 2011 @ time: 06:33PM
Author: bp9801

I know that some of you have been looking forward to the upcoming game Payday: The Heist. This bit of news is something you probably do not want to hear considering the game is supposed to be out tomorrow, but Payday: The Heist has been delayed to later this month. Developer Overkill Software said that the game has been delayed to better ensure "the best quality game experience." There was no word as to when the game will be available, except that it will just be later this month. I am sure the game won't see much of a delay, especially one announced so close to the launch date. Payday: The Heist will be available on the PC and PS3 for $19.99, but we'll just have a little bit longer to go before it comes out.


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Microsoft Quietly Pulls the Plug on Zune Players

Posted: October 3, 2011 @ time: 11:24PM
Author: F13Bubba

After a relatively short life span for a media player, Microsoft has quietly decided to put an end to its line of Zune media players. After its release in 2006 the player reached moderate success, with many users calling it an iPod killer. Unfortunately, the first generation was plagued by a series of glitches, and sales were never able to match Apple's device. The Zune's death comes by the way of a message on the Zune support site, stating that production of the device will cease. The statement went on to say that all valid warranties will continue to be honored, and the Zune's software and music pass service will remain. Microsoft is canning the device so the company can focus on Windows Phone, and the accompanying media services.


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Hardware Roundup: Tuesday Edition

Posted: October 4, 2011 @ time: 04:54AM
Author: Nemo

We'll kick off the Tuesday roundup with two more articles that examine the performance of the Battlefield 3 beta. Speaking of which, there is also a Battlefield 3 system build guide for you to check out. From there we can move on to Thermaltake's Spacecraft VF-I mid-tower computer case and the Cooler Master Hyper 612 PWM CPU Cooler. In the world of gadgets, Sony has its HMZ-T1 Personal 3D Viewer and we get a chance to check it out. We also have the Innergie mobile power adapter, ASRock's Z68 Extreme4 Gen3 motherboard and more.

Cases
Thermaltake Spacecraft VF-I Computer Case @ Benchmark Reviews

Cooling
Cooler Master Hyper 612 PWM CPU Cooler @ ThinkComputers

Gadgets
Hands On With Sony's HMZ-T1 Personal 3D Viewer @ TweakTown

Gaming
Battlefield 3 Open Beta Performance and Image Quality @ [H]ardOCP
Battlefield 3 Beta Performance Test @ TechSpot

Mobile
Innergie mCube Slim 95 @ XSReviews

Motherboards
ASRock Z68 Extreme4 Gen3 (Intel Z68) Motherboard @ TweakTown

Miscellany
The TR Podcast 97: Sweet spot SSDs and Amazon's new Kindles @ Tech Report
Battlefield 3 (BF3) System Build Guide - What you need to succeed @ PC Perspective


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Plasmonic Nanotweezers for Biophysics

Posted: October 4, 2011 @ time: 08:55AM
Author: Guest_Jim_*

There are some pretty interesting tools in science, and among them are optical tweezers. By focusing laser light correctly, it is possible to hold a transparent microscopic object, such as a living cell. For most microscopic cells, this tool is great, but you cannot go too small with them. Lens can only focus light to half the wavelength, and scientists cannot simply use a smaller wavelength of light, as this may lead to damaging or killing the cell. Fortunately, researchers at Harvard University have improved upon the design of plasmonic tweezers. Plasmons, a virtual particle created when light shines on a metal, can be focused down to a much smaller point than regular photons, but using them in tweezers have been difficult. The laser would be aimed at gold nano-disks on a sheet of glass, but the brightest point would actually be beneath the pillar, within the glass. This caused a great deal of heat, and the optimal point to hold a particle or cell to be somewhere unreachable. To solve both of these problems, the researchers replaced the glass with silicon topped with copper and gold. This substrate would conduct the heat away and moved the optimal point to around the gold nano-disks. This may lead to the next-generation of optical tweezers with its ability to capture smaller objects.


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Next Ally in Fighting Cancer: Cancer

Posted: October 4, 2011 @ time: 08:56AM
Author: Guest_Jim_*

Among the tools in an oncologist’s bag for defeating cancer is chemotherapy. The chemicals used are meant to destroy cancer cells, but sometimes will miss their target and kill healthy cells too. Numerous researchers are looking for ways to better target the drugs, sometimes with the help of nanotechnology, but some at Johns Hopkins University have a different plan. Instead of trying to deliver the cell killing chemical outside of the cancer cell, why not deliver it inside the cancer cell? Combining a nontoxic drug with a protein switch, the chemical could be absorbed by both healthy and cancerous cells without harming them. If the protein switch is activated though, the remainder of the chemical becomes toxic and will kill the cell it is in. By having the trigger be something only present within cancer cells, this should keep the collateral damage to a minimum.

This method has been testing in human cancer cells, but not human patients. More experimentation is needed before clinical trials can begin.


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Computer Prescribed Recovery for Heart Attack Victims

Posted: October 4, 2011 @ time: 08:56AM
Author: Guest_Jim_*

As many as one million Americans suffer a heart attack every year. Even after surviving the initial attack, there can be lingering complications which will lead to death. Doctors do their best to examine patients and prescribe appropriate treatments but there are so many factors that many people who need intensive treatment do not receive it, while those who do receive it may never even use it. Computer scientists at the University of Michigan have analyzed 24-hour electrocardiogram data from 4,557 heart attack victims and found markers to identify the patients in the most danger. The day long monitoring is a normal procedure but doctors do not have the ability to closely examine the massive amount of data. The computers identified three abnormalities which are linked to the patient surviving, and combining the information from all three results in predicting up to 50% more deaths with fewer false positives, potentially saving thousands a year. Collecting the data used in the study is already a standard procedure and will not increase the burden on caregivers and patients or be at an additional cost.


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Wake-Up Gene Found

Posted: October 4, 2011 @ time: 08:56AM
Author: Guest_Jim_*

Ever wonder what it is that wakes you up? I don’t mean an alarm clock, pet, or person, but the biology to get you up and going for the new day. Researchers at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies appear to have found the genetic sequence which revs up our body; KDM5A. From when a person wakes up until he or she falls asleep, a protein, central to our biological clock, called PERIOD or PER, is produced. At night the amount is high enough to trip the system producing it, so levels reduce. What KDM5A does is get the production going again in the morning. This result can have consequences for those with sleep disorders, chronic issues, and the elderly. The biological clock is tied to many parts of our metabolism and if it becomes disturbed by late shifts at work, or just aging, problems may arise. Further research into this gene must be done, but the impact the work can have is amazing.


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Apple iPhone Press Conference Reveals the iPhone 4S

Posted: October 4, 2011 @ time: 11:59AM
Author: bp9801

In September, Apple announced it would be holding a press conference on October 4th. Well, today is that day and that means the Apple press conference is going strong, with new CEO Tim Cook handling the announcement duties. Cook started off by talking about the Mac, the iPod, the iPhone, and the iPad. The Mac userbase has grown by 23% since last year, with 60 million people worldwide using a Mac. For the iPod, over 300 million iPods have been sold since it launched in 2001. The iPad is the number one tablet in the world, with 74% of the time a tablet is looked at, an iPad is purchased. For all iOS devices, Apple has sold over 250 million of them. That is a ton of market share.

This event, however, is all about the iPhone. The iPhone holds 43% of the US share of smartphone sales, plus customers have downloaded over 18 billion apps from the App Store. Yes, 18 billion apps and now the number sits at about one billion downloads a month. Next up was talk of iOS 5, which finally adds a notification system that allows new messages to appear in the upper left, similar to Android. There are several new features also announced for it, like iMessage, which is similar to BlackBerry Messenger, and new camera abilities. iOS 5 drops on October 12th, something I am sure many are looking forward to. Finally, we come to the heart of the announcement, and that is a new iPhone.

The new iPhone will be called the iPhone 4S, and it is twice as fast as the iPhone 4 thanks in part to the new A5 chip. It even has dual-core graphics that are said to be seven times faster than the previous iPhone. To illustrate how powerful the new graphics are, Epic Games' president Mike Capps was on stage to demo Infinity Blade II. The game is using several new enhancements that were first seen in the God of War series on the PS3, and Capps said that Infinity Blade II will only be playable on the iPhone 4S. The game will be available on December 1st. Back to the hardware, the iPhone 4S will feature eight hours of 3G talk time, six hours of 3G browsing or nine on WiFi, ten hours for video playback and 40 hours for music playback. The antennas have been improved, now featuring download speeds that are theoritically twice as fast as the iPhone 4. It has both a CDMA and GSM chip, meaning it will work on any cellular network in the US and the world.

The camera on the iPhone 4S has been improved and it is now an eight megapixel sensor. That enables it to compete with other recent phones as well as some digital cameras. It features a backside illuminated CMOS to allow in 73% more light, a hybrid IR filter for better colors, and a five element lens for sharper pictures. It features a mere 1.1 seconds to take your first photo and 0.5 seconds in between shots, making it the fastest smartphone camera around. The iPhone 4S can even shoot 1080p video with image stabilization. The iPhone 4S also features AirPlay Mirroring, letting you use an HDTV to view the action during a game. The iPhone 4S also features a much improved voice control system dubbed Siri. It basically lets you control and access content on your iPhone 4S just by speaking.

The Apple iPhone 4S seems like it will be an impressive device when it launches later this month. The iPhone 4S will be available on October 14th, with pre-orders starting on the 7th. US carriers receiving the iPhone 4S will be AT&T, Verizon, and Sprint. Even though those three carriers all have a 4G network in some way, the iPhone 4S is still just a 3G device.


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Bethesda Working to Fix Issues with RAGE

Posted: October 4, 2011 @ time: 12:16PM
Author: bp9801

One of the biggest titles of the year, RAGE, just launched today. Some of you, myself included, probably started playing the game when it was unlocked late last night. The game is technically brilliant with a wonderful game engine that is highly detailed, but the problem lies with a plethora of bugs. RAGE suffers from texture pop-in, artifacting, poor mouse control, audio crackles, and more. The texture pop-in is particularly annoying, as it happens whenever you move the mouse quickly to look around. The game uses id Tech 5, which is a gorgeous game engine, but the textures do not load up until you are actually looking in that area on screen. Due to that, whenever you quickly look around, the textures have a noticeable delay before they show. Bethesda Softworks, publisher of RAGE, knows the issues affecting the PC version of the game and is working closely with AMD, NVIDIA, and developer id Software to fix these issues. Last night while playing, I experienced the texture pop-in as well as some missing audio whenever I was driving the first vehicle around. It also appeared that multiple graphics cards did not help, since only one of mine was being used anywhere close to capacity.

AMD is working on an optimized driver for RAGE, which should be released shortly. NVIDIA's latest beta driver should help, though it is possible a new one will be developed. Id Software is hopefully working on a patch to correct the texture pop-in, audo crackles, and other issues. We'll just have to see when any of these fixes come out and just how much of a help any of them are.

Update: The AMD video driver has been released, and you can download it here.


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New Portal 2 Co-Op DLC is Live, Full Game on Sale on Steam

Posted: October 4, 2011 @ time: 03:16PM
Author: bp9801

Last week, word came that Valve would finally be releasing new DLC for Portal 2. Well, that day has come and the new DLC, titled "Peer Review," is out now on Steam, Xbox Live, and PlayStation Network. If you have Portal 2 installed on your PC or Mac, the DLC should automatically download whenever you start up Steam. XBL should have the DLC now, while the PSN should get it as soon as the PS Store updates. The DLC is entirely free, even on the consoles, so you really have no excuse to not pick it up and continue the story of Atlas and P-Body as they explore a new test track. There are also new single player and co-op leaderboards included in the DLC, so you can see how quickly you finish a level compared to the rest of the world. If you don't happen to own Portal 2, you can pick it up on Steam for the low price of $14.99. The game is 50% until October 6th, so you better hurry to pick up one of the best games of the year.


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Kindle Touch 3G Still Dependent on Wi-Fi

Posted: October 4, 2011 @ time: 03:54PM
Author: CheeseMan42

The recently announced Kindle Touch 3G from Amazon will feature some basic web browsing capabilities. However, the 3G aspect will only be good for downloading purchased books and documents and browsing Wikipedia. This is likely due to the fact that Amazon subsidizes the 3G access, and any further capability would likely cost them more. Anyone that is looking to do any further browsing on their new Kindle will need to be on Wi-Fi. The 3G version of the Kindle Touch will set you back $149, while the Wi-Fi only version costs only $99. Potential buyers will have to decide if the ability to download books anywhere they have 3G is worth the price premium before the November 21 release date.


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Corsair Adds 8GB Sticks to Two Memory Lines

Posted: October 4, 2011 @ time: 04:07PM
Author: CheeseMan42

Corsair has announced additions to two of its memory lines in the form of 8GB memory sticks. The Vengeance and Value Select DDR3 memory lines are geared towards enthusiasts and casual users, respectively. Gamers and overclockers will now find it easy to have 32GB of memory in their high end systems for a great price. The Vengeance series takes 1.5V and will operate at 1600MHz out of the package. The jet black heat spreaders will keep your memory looking and running cool. The Value Select series will allow your casual desktop and laptop users to easily expand their memory to better handle whatever they may throw at their computer. Value Select memory will also take 1.5V, but will operate at 1333MHz. The memory is now available for both lines, though no price was available.


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Hardware Roundup: Wednesday Edition

Posted: October 5, 2011 @ time: 05:11AM
Author: Nemo

Apple unveiled its latest version of the iPhone at a press conference yesterday and our roundup includes a couple of articles on the iPhone 4S. There's a review on the Mushkin Chronos Deluxe 120GB solid state drive as well as the EVGA GeForce GTX 580 Classified video card. We also get another look at the Cubitek XL-Tank full-tower case along with the Cooler Master Storm Trooper chassis. Be sure to check out these and all the other items by following the links below.

Cases
Cooler Master Storm Trooper (SGC-5000-KKN1) Full Tower Case @ TweakTown
Cubitek XL-Tank Full Tower Case @ Bjorn3D

Input Devices
Roccat Isku gaming Keyboard @ XSReviews

Mobile
Apple iPhone 4s – What You Should Know @ ThinkComputers
iPhone 4S: How Does It Stack Up? @ TechSpot

Power Supplies
Why 80 PLUS® is Irrelevant to You When Buying a PSU @ [H]ardOCP

Storage/Hard Drives
Mushkin Chronos Deluxe 120GB Solid State Drive @ TweakTown

Video
EVGA GeForce GTX 580 Classified Video Card @ Benchmark Reviews


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Rocket Launches Chinese Space Lab

Posted: October 5, 2011 @ time: 07:39AM
Author: edwardquilo

A rocket carrying the Tiangong-1 space lab was launched in the Gobi desert, ascending over the Pacific for a destination 350km above the Earth. Initially unmanned, the 10.5 meter space module will be visited by Chinese astronauts sometime next year. The self-operating module will be supported by another spacecraft named Shenzhou 8, which will launch after a few weeks. The Tiangong, which translates as Heavenly Palace in Chinese, will then attempt to link up to the Shenzhou 8, to start what is going to be China's very own space station. If the procedure is successful, two manned space expeditions by Shenzhou 9 and 10 are expected in 2012. The Chinese astronauts aboard will then spend a maximum of two weeks within the space module.

Described as the second step in what Beijing officials report as as a three step strategy, the Tiangong project will culminate in the construction of the space station, which is expected to weigh around 60 tonnes. Upon completion, the station would likely be dwarfed in size by the 400-tonne International Space Station, but it's still a significant accomplishment. The core module is estimated to weigh between 20-22 tons, bolstered by two smaller laboratory facilities. Supplies such as basic necessities and fuel will be transported by space freighters, similar to how the ISS is restocked by robotic cargo ships. With billions of dollars of funding poured in by China, its foray into space includes two lunar satellites launched into the Moon's orbit, with another space voyage intended to place a rover on to the lunar surface. Rockets with greater lift capabilities will be deployed eventually, such as the Long March 5, which has a 20-tonne capacity. This massive rocket will be essential in completing the space station. 

After two years, the Tiangong-1 will be replaced and then decommissioned into the depths of the Pacific Ocean.

 


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Unreal Engine 3 Ported to Flash Player 11

Posted: October 5, 2011 @ time: 08:01AM
Author: bp9801

Adobe Flash Player 11 just recently released, but perhaps the biggest news comes from the folks at Epic Games. The studio will be bringing Unreal Engine 3 to Flash Player 11, giving the Adobe program a serious advantage over other utilities. Flash Player 11 includes hardware accelerated graphics, and with the power of UE3 being added in, could mean for some seriously amazing Flash games down the road. This could even open up the potential to see some Unreal Engine games running entirely in an Internet browser, or even appear on smartphones and tablets running Flash 11. Epic Games is quite proud of the fact that UE3 is now ported to Flash, since it means an even larger user base can now experience one of the most used game engines out there.


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Battlefield 3 to Feature Squad Support in the Game

Posted: October 5, 2011 @ time: 08:23AM
Author: bp9801

Earlier this month, DICE's community manager said that "voice chat and squadding" will be handled by Battelog for Battlefield 3. This prompted an uproar by many fans, since in-game squad management has been a key feature of past Battlefield games. Well, it seems the community manager simply misspoke, as another DICE employee said that Battlefield 3 will feature full squad support in-game. This is good news for many, as in-game squad support lets you form private squads and even kick players from those squads. You can still manage the squads through Battlelog, but now you will also be able to from within the game itself. The people who were worried about the squad options of Battlefield 3 should now be able to rest a little bit easier.

Battlefield 3 launches on October 25th for the PC, PS3, and 360.


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Apple Kills Old App for New iPhone

Posted: October 5, 2011 @ time: 09:07AM
Author: Guest_Jim_*

At yesterday’s Apple press conference, one of the main items was the voice-control system called Siri. For those of you who do not follow iOS apps, Siri is not a new product but dates back over 18 months and was available for every iOS device. Apple bought Siri and then stopped releasing updates to it, but yesterday, before the end of the press conference, they took it offline. Siri uses servers to perform some of its functions but those were shutdown, making the app useless to those who already own and use it. The message which comes up when trying to use Siri states a newer, better version of the app is coming to the iPhone 4S. Until the release of the new phone though, it appears no one will have access to some of the wonderful functionality Apple stressed yesterday, and even then, the next form Siri takes may require the hardware found in the iPhone 4S.


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Securing the Cloud

Posted: October 5, 2011 @ time: 10:09AM
Author: Guest_Jim_*

To some, moving computing into the Cloud is a wonderful idea as it allows easy access and sharing of data. Sadly, some of those people include hackers who see cloud computing as an opportunity to exploit at another’s expense. Obviously security must be one of the most important features of any cloud computing system, and researchers at North Carolina State University and IBM have created a new system specifically for the Cloud. Called Strongly Isolated Computing Environment, or SICE, the technique uses virtualization and multicore processors to its advantage. SICE separates the virtual machines on a server to prevent the compromise of one from leading to the compromise of all. For further protection, programmers will be able to direct sensitive data to only pass through specific cores of a multicore processor. When running SICE will only take up 3% of the system’s resources, making this a very viable option for when it enters the commercial industry.


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Storing the Sun’s Energy

Posted: October 5, 2011 @ time: 10:10AM
Author: Guest_Jim_*

An almost unbelievable amount of energy falls on the Earth from the Sun every day, and many people want to take advantage of it with photovoltaics. Not everything can use solar panels for power though, such as airplanes and heavy trucks. Such machines require other kinds of fuel, and currently these are fossil fuels. Researchers have been working to bring solar power into fossil fuels, by using sunlight to power the systems to make liquid fuels, such as gasoline. From the Massachusetts Institute of Technology comes an artificial leaf. When placed in water, sunlight will be used to break water molecules into molecular hydrogen and oxygen, which can be stored for burned for energy at another place and another time. The University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign has found a catalyst for converting carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide, the first part to manufacturing a hydrocarbon. Unfortunately both systems are inefficient and slow at this time, but research will continue to bridge the gap between renewable and fossil fuels.


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China’s Cyber-Espionage is "Intolerable"

Posted: October 5, 2011 @ time: 10:10AM
Author: Guest_Jim_*

On Tuesday, while much of the world was watching the news from Apple, Representative Mike Rodgers, chairman of the U.S. House Intelligence Committee, stated China’s cyber-espionage has "reached an intolerable level." Many people are aware of, at least, accusations of China’s government attacking computer systems, but may not be aware of everything being hit. Hitting government and military computer systems would seem obvious, but it appears China is also attacking the systems of many private companies within the United States. The government of China owns and is connected to many industries in its country, so any research they may steal could go directly to their companies for use, undermining the effort put in by the American companies. Christopher Bronk, of Rice University, praises Google, which was hacked in early June, for admitting to the breech and accusing China of the attack, hoping others will respond similarly. Bronk believes the information of such an attack must be shared between government, industry, and academia to better defend against attacks in the future.


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Steve Jobs Dead at 56

Posted: October 5, 2011 @ time: 04:56PM
Author: CheeseMan42

Apple has confirmed that its former CEO, Steve Jobs, has lost his long battle against pancreatic cancer, passing away at the age of 56. Jobs was behind the turnaround of Apple, and much of its popular recent products. Jobs was considered a visionary in the tech world, and his work with Steve Wozniak resulted in the first personal computer. This tragic news comes the day after Apple announced its newest iPhone, the iPhone 4S. I'm sure I speak for the rest of OCC when I wish the best to his family and friends that knew him best in what is certainly a very sad time for them.


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L.A. Noire's Developer to Shut Down

Posted: October 5, 2011 @ time: 06:13PM
Author: bp9801

Earlier we reported that Team Bondi, the developer behind the exceptional police drama L.A. Noire, was placed into administration. Today, it seems that the closure of the studio is all but assured, marking an end to a troubled company. L.A. Noire was released earlier this year to glowing reviews and soon it will appear on the PC, but shortly after the game's release in May some disturbing reports surfaced. Employee complaints of unfair working conditions and omission from L.A. Noire's credits brought the attention of the International Game Developers Association. A senior Team Bondi developer said that the company would learn from its mistakes, but soon after the studio entered administration. Now, the studio will close, however that will not affect the development of the PC version, which is being handled by Rockstar Leeds. Take-Two owns the L.A. Noire IP, so it is possible a future title could exist with a different developer at the helm.


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Sprint to Offer Unlimited Data to iPhone Users

Posted: October 5, 2011 @ time: 07:35PM
Author: bp9801

The iPhone 4S was just announced yesterday, and with it came the news that Sprint would be getting both it and the older iPhone 4. Many wondered if Sprint would also offer its unlimited data to iPhone users, especially since both Verizon and AT&T started off with unlimited data but then moved to a tiered structure. Well, today Sprint has confirmed that iPhone users on its network will get unlimited data, something I am sure many will be happy about. The $69.99 a month plan will include 450 minutes and unlimited data, meaning the iPhone will not be any different than any other 3G or 4G phone on Sprint. With this announcement, Sprint is the only carrier to have an iPhone and an unlimited data plan, which could mean people dissatisified with tiered data on the other two iPhone carriers may end up switching to the Now Network. The iPhone 4S will launch on AT&T, Verizon, and Sprint October 14th.


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NVIDIA Posts a Guide on How to Unlock High Resolution Textures in RAGE for Both NVIDIA and AMD Users

Posted: October 5, 2011 @ time: 09:56PM
Author: bp9801

Id Software's latest title, RAGE, released yesterday to some fairly good reviews. However, the PC version suffers from some technical issues not typically associated from the folks at id. Both AMD and NVIDIA have drivers optimized for the game, but we're still waiting for an official patch from id to fix the majority of the issues, like missing audio and texture pop-in. In the mean time, the folks at NVIDIA have been working diligently to offer some tweaks for RAGE, and have posted a how-to guide to help everyone get the most from the game. This guide is designed for both NVIDIA and AMD users, with the main requirement being a video card with at least 1GB of VRAM. The guide shows gamers from both camps how to unlock RAGE's high resolution textures, and if you happen to have a video card with 3GB of VRAM, you can unlock even higher resolution textures. The guide is posted over on GeForce.com, but it will help any PC gamer regardless of which video card you are running. The tweaks do require the modification of a .cfg configuration file, but the results are worth it just judging by the pictures the GeForce guys posted. NVIDIA users can take advantage of GPU transcoding, which the GeForce.com article mentions is due to CUDA, but AMD users can still benefit from the other tweaks.

The pictures below show RAGE with 4K, what NVIDIA estimates to be 5-6K, and then finally 8K textures.


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Hardware Roundup: Thursday Edition

Posted: October 6, 2011 @ time: 05:34AM
Author: Nemo

OCC would like to pay tribute today as we remember Steve Jobs who passed away yesterday, he was just 56 years old. A true visionary, Mr. Jobs will be sorely missed and will long be remembered for his contributions to the tech world. We have several reviews for you examination today which you can read by using the links below.

Caming
RAGE Performance and Image Quality Evaluation - Day 1 @ PC Perspective

Input Devices
CM Storm Quick Fire Rapid Keyboard @ TweakTown

Motherboards
Llano Mini-ITX motherboard face off: Asus' F1A75-I Deluxe versus Zotac's A75-ITX WiFi @ TechReport
GIGABYTE H61N-USB3 (Intel H61) Mini-ITX Motherboard @ TweakTown

Speakers/Headphones
Thermaltake Shock One Gaming Headset @ [H]ardOCP
Radiopaq Duo Headphones @ XSReviews

Miscellany
iRIP: Steve Jobs @ LanOC Reviews


Complete Story


Corsair Announces a New Case, CPU Coolers, and SSDs

Posted: October 6, 2011 @ time: 11:16AM
Author: bp9801

A while back, Corsair announced the Carbide Series 400R and 500R cases. Well, the 400R has been available for some time, but today Corsair has announced the 500R is now available. Corsair also announced several new products, including some new liquid CPU coolers and solid state drives. First up is the Carbide Series 500R case, which brings a wealth of features to an affordable mid-tower design. The 500R builds on the styling of the 400R as well as the Obsidian and Graphite Series cases. The Carbide Series 500R is available in white or grey colors, includes a meshed side panel capable of holding a 200mm fan, a multi-channel fan controller, and moveable hard drive cages to adapt to any installed system. The case also features tool-less drive bays, USB 3.0 support on the front panel, and cable routing holes on the inside.

Next up we have some new liquid CPU coolers, namely the Hydro H40 and H70 CORE. The Hydro H40 is the new entry-level CPU cooler from Corsair, as it provides affordable and reliable cooling to mainstream users. It supports the majority of AMD and Intel sockets, features an illustrated quick start guide for easy installation, and will never need to be refilled, making it ideal for users wanting to take their first steps into liquid cooling. The Hydro H70 CORE is based on the H70 cooler, but comes without the fans so users can customize the cooling potential on their own. This way users who buy the H70 CORE can use up some extra 120mm fans or just purchase ones with a higher airflow than what Corsair provides. The H70 CORE features a 38mm thick radiator for maximum cooling potential.

Lastly, we come to the new solid state drives. Corsair has worked on these new SSDs to deliver faster speeds with a higher capacity, all while maintaining a relatively affordable price. There are two new models of the Force Series 3 and one new Force Series GT, with both utilizing a SandForce SF-2280 SSD Processor and the SATA 6Gbps interface. The Force Series GT is combined with ONFI synchronous flash memory, while the Force Series 3 makes use of asynchronous flash memory. The Force Series 3 SSDs are capable of read speeds of 550MB/s and write speeds of 520MB/s, while the Force Series GT improves the read speeds to 555MB/s and write speeds to 525MB/s. The available capacities are 180 and 480GB for the Force Series 3 SSDS, with the Force Series GT getting a 480GB model.

The Corsair Carbide Series 500R case is available now for $139. The Hydro H40 and H70 CORE CPU coolers will be available later this month. The H40 will cost $59 while the H70 CORE is at $89. The Force Series 3 180GB SSD has a price of $249, the Force Series 3 480GB SSD a price of $799, and the Force Series GT 480GB SSD starts at $999.


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Red Dead Redemption Not Probable for the PC, According to Rockstar

Posted: October 6, 2011 @ time: 11:48AM
Author: bp9801

In 2009, Rockstar released Red Dead Redemption on the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360. The game is set in the final days of the American wild west and lets your character, John Marston, roam an open world on horseback. RDR launched to much critical acclaim, but many people were waiting on a PC release before getting to experience it. When Rockstar announced a console Game of the Year edition for Red Dead Redemption, many people thought a PC version would not be too far off. However, that does not seem to be the case as Rockstar has basically said Red Dead Redemption will never come to the PC. The company did not say that exactly, but rather that it brings a game to the computer when it is viable from a technical, developmental, and business standpoint. Rockstar ended by saying sometimes that is not always the case, which essentially translates to RDR will never come to the PC. Maybe one day it will be, but for the foreseeable future, it will not.


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Upcoming Neverwinter to be a Free-to-Play MMO

Posted: October 6, 2011 @ time: 12:54PM
Author: bp9801

We've known that a new game in BioWare's Neverwinter series would be coming, but this time it will be handled by Cryptic Studios. Cryptic is the creator behind Champions Online and Star Trek Online, two MMORPGs, yet the new Neverwinter was announced as a co-op RPG. Today, however, that has all changed, as Cryptic has announced the upcoming Neverwinter will be a free-to-play MMORPG, a radical departure from the game's original plan. Both Neverwinter Nights 1 and 2 are single player RPGs with co-op elements, which Cryptic's Neverwinter was, at the time, going to be a strictly co-op affair. It seems the studio has other plans and will instead focus on what it knows best, MMOs. Neverwinter will feature free quests, areas, and expansions, but pets, "fancy clothing items," and consumables will be purchaseable. This new approach to the game also means that Neverwinter will now be released sometime late next year, more than likely because a good majority of the game will need to be overhauled.

Both of Cryptic's other MMORPGs are F2P, or will be once Star Trek Online switches over to the model later this year. You can probably rest assured that whatever game Cryptic Studios announces next will be an F2P MMORPG.


Complete Story


AMD Demonstrates 28nm Graphics Processor at Fusion 2011

Posted: October 6, 2011 @ time: 01:02PM
Author: bp9801

Many people have speculated on when exactly we would see a 28nm GPU, and AMD has delivered. Talking at Fusion 2011 in Taiwan, Matt Skynner, Corporate Vice President and General Manager of AMD's Graphics Division, demonstrated AMD's 28nm graphics processor. Skynner showed a laptop version of a 28nm GPU running BioWare's Dragon Age 2, with smooth gameplay delivered at a high resolution. The 28nm GPU is an important step for AMD, as it will help enable new innovations in its graphics architecture, which allows for even more powerful video cards to be released. The 28nm graphic processor will appear in AMD's next-generation video cards, something I am sure many of you are eagerly awaiting.


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PowerColor Announces Devil 13 HD6970

Posted: October 6, 2011 @ time: 02:43PM
Author: CheeseMan42

PowerColor has announced what it is touting as the "ultimate edition of the HD6970," the Devil 13 HD6970. The default clock settings of 880MHz core speed and 1375MHz memory speed can get a quick 10% boost with a built-in OC switch. The new speeds of 960MHz core and 1425MHz should add noticeable gaming performance, and several frames per second as well. The high quality components that are used to construct the Devil 13 result in steady power delivery as well as lower temperatures and reduced conduction loss. The card also features several measurement points to make it easy for overclockers to keep an eye on voltage. Two 92mm fans will blow plenty of cold air over the copper heat sink, featuring several heat pipes. The Devil 13 comes packed with 2GB of GDD5, CrossFireX and Eyefinity support, and plenty of connector options.


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OCZ Acquires UK SSD Design Team

Posted: October 6, 2011 @ time: 03:19PM
Author: CheeseMan42

OCZ Technology has announced its acquisition of the UK design team of PLX Technology, a move aimed at strengthening its position in the SSD market. Also included in the deal is some unspecified intellectual property. The design team has extensive experience with System on Chip, or SoC, design and should allow OCZ to "accelerate solid state drive development, reducing its time to market for next generation SSD products, while also reducing development costs." Hopefully cost savings will enable prices in the SSD market to come down, and therefore benefit the consumer and allow more people to jump into SSD technology.


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The Chaotic Growth of Nanotubes

Posted: October 6, 2011 @ time: 06:27PM
Author: Guest_Jim_*

Researchers at Boston College have observed early stages in the formation of carbon nanotubes and found some surprising results. From zero to four minutes the nanotubes made by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition are very disordered and only just budding. The next stage, from four to ten minutes, consists of longer and more aligned nanotubes, but still tangled together. The third and final stage are all in-line and at the proper length. During this manufacturing process, the earlier stages are removed, so no trace of them is found in the finished product. Though often the aligned nanotubes are what scientists and researchers want, these tangled masses could prove useful for conducting heat, due to their greater density. Computers could use such an application as a means to more efficiently pull heat away from integrated circuits.


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Creating Custom Catalysts

Posted: October 6, 2011 @ time: 06:27PM
Author: Guest_Jim_*

Catalysts are a very important tool in many areas of science. What a catalyst does is give a reaction an easier path to take. Imagine riding a bike and you come to a large hill you may not have the energy to ride up. A catalyst will make the one large hill multiple smaller hills, which you are confident you can overcome. Researchers at the University of Utah have discovered the size and electronic properties of catalysts are related to how well the catalyst functions, something many researchers thought was not true. This opens the door to more easily designed catalysts for industrial and commercial uses. Already the team demonstrated the ability to predict the optimal catalyst for a reaction.


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Producing Plastic Purposefully

Posted: October 6, 2011 @ time: 06:27PM
Author: Guest_Jim_*

A plethora of plastics have been discovered, but comparatively few have actually made their way into use. This is because the properties of a plastic cannot be known until a batch has actually been made. When no known plastic would be appropriate for a particular use, a great many plastics would have to be created to find one which will suffice, unless the researchers are incredibly lucky. Researchers at the University of Leeds have removed luck from the equation by creating a library of recipes for plastics with the ability to predict and select the properties of plastics. Taking a decade of research to complete, this research should greatly accelerate the research into plastics for exotic uses and made from renewable resources, instead of oil-based products.


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Software-Defined Networking to be Discussed October 17-19

Posted: October 6, 2011 @ time: 06:28PM
Author: Guest_Jim_*

The first Open Networking Summit is to be held from October 17-19 with many of the Open Networking Foundation (ONF) members present. Among the topics discussed will be OpenFlow and software-defined networking. Born from the NSF’s 2033 “100x100 Project for Clean Slate Design,” software-defined networking is a way to more intelligently control the flow of data through a network. OpenFlow is an example of this which allows a single physical network to include multiple slices. These slices can be experimented with, for improved performance and security, without interfering with the main network, but still are accessible to anyone on the network. This allows the experiments to be run at full scale and with real user load. Already this is being used by multiple universities, from Stanford to Clemson, and several companies are members of ONF, such as Google, Verizon, and Facebook.


Complete Story


Monkey See, Monkey Virtually Feel

Posted: October 6, 2011 @ time: 06:28PM
Author: Guest_Jim_*

Brain-to-machine interface technologies have been investigated for years as a way to give paralyzed and locked-in persons the abilities they’ve lost. Never before has the connection been bidirectional though, giving the subject information, such as tactile sensations. Duke University Medical Center attached the monkeys to a computer to control virtual arms and hands with their brains while electrical pulses gave information back to the brain on what the virtual palm was feeling. This gave the monkeys a sense of touch able to distinguish between different surfaces, which were identical on the display the machines watched. The hope is to potentially make an exoskeleton for paralyzed persons to control with their brain and regain the ability to explore the world.


Complete Story


ZOTAC Unveils ZBOX Nano VD01 Series Mini-PCs

Posted: October 6, 2011 @ time: 09:18PM
Author: premiumgfx

ZOTAC today unveiled its latest product, a "palm-sized" mini-PC dubbed the ZBOX nano VD01 series. The new ZBOX packs in a VIA Nano X2 U4025 CPU paired with the VX900H chipset, enabling excellent performance and low power consumption.

Carsten Berger, marketing director at ZOTAC International said that "ZOTAC is pleased to expand its mini-PC lineup with the addition of a VIA platform. The VIA Nano X2 with VX900H chipset enables us to deliver an affordable energy-efficient mini-PC that is ideal for digital media consumption and home server use with the ZOTAC ZBOX nano VD01 series."

VIA's Vice President of Marketing also mentioned that "ZOTAC is an industry leader of innovative mini-PC solutions. VIA is proud to partner with ZOTAC for the ZBOX nano VD01 series that highlights our energy efficient Nano X2 platform."

The ZBOX supports fluid playback of high definition video formats such as Blu-Ray, MPEG 2 and H.264. The mini-PC requires a 2.5" SATA hard drive and one DDR3 SO-DIMM memory stick, although the ZBOX nano VD01 Plus models are preinstalled with a 320GB hard drive and 2GB of DDR3 memory. Connectivity is covered by an ethernet port along with USB 2.0, USB 3.0 and eSATA support. ZOTAC did not disclose details regarding the availability or pricing of the ZBOX nano VD01 series of mini-PCs.


Complete Story


Hardware Roundup: Friday Edition

Posted: October 7, 2011 @ time: 05:30AM
Author: Nemo

Id Software's latest offering, Rage, is examined in a gaming article in today's roundup. On the system building side of things we have thee NZXT Source 210 Elite White mid-tower case, a 1300W gaming power supply from Rosewill and VisionTek's Ultimate Performance 1866Mhz DDR3 memory modules. For those needing extra storage space there's the QNAP Turbo NAS TS-1079 Pro storage server.

Cases
NZXT Source 210 Elite White Mid Tower Case @ TweakTown

Gaming
Three days in Rage's wastelands @ Tech Report

Memory
VisionTek Ultimate Performance 1866Mhz DDR3 @ Benchmark Reviews

Notebooks
HP EliteBook 8460p Notebook @ TechSpot

Power Supplies
Rosewill Lightning 1300W Gaming Modular Power Supply @ Bjorn3D

Prebuilts
Arctic MC001-E Entertainment Center Barebone @ Madshrimps

Storage/Hard Drives
Kingston Wi-Drive 16GB Wireless Flash Storage for iOS Devices @ TweakTown
QNAP Turbo NAS TS-1079 Pro @ TweakTown

Miscellany
Podcast #173 @ PC Perspective


Complete Story


Making a Perturbation Free Quantum Computer

Posted: October 7, 2011 @ time: 08:38AM
Author: Guest_Jim_*

Researchers at the University of Innsbruck, where the quantum simulator came from, have discovered a way to design a quantum computer free from perturbations. Previous research has shown how to create quantum states from what normally increases disorder; dissipation. The Innsbruck researchers used this and a new concept in condensed matter physics called topological order. An example topological phenomenon is the topological insulator which conductor on its surface while being an insulator inside. The combination of these two sciences allows the researchers to describe a quantum mechanical system which will be driven to a targeted state by dissipation. This development may lead to quantum computers immune to the disturbances of dissipation, making them more viable in the future.


Complete Story


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