A single-molecule transistor has been created by researchers from Yale University and Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology. Using a benzene molecule that is attached to gold contacts, it can behave just like a silicon transistor. Depending on the voltage given to the transistor, they can change its energy states and thus be able to control the current that passes through that single molecule. Research for the single-molecule transistor started all the way back in the 1990s. "There were a lot of technological advances and understanding we built up over many years to make this happen," stated by Mark Reed who is the professor of Engineering & Applied Science at Yale. Together with Takhee Lee from the Gwangju IST they studied different techniques that allowed them to observe and develop the single-molecule transistor. So far the smallest transistors are at 32nm, but now by simply putting a benzene molecule onto gold contacts it can behave just like a silicon transistor. This will be much cheaper for manufacturers, but this technology will take years to become mainstream, so don't be expecting for a while.